Learn How to use GNU/Linux

Learn How To Use GNU/Linux: Lesson One

hi everyone and welcome i'll talk about the installition of mandrake linux 10 operating system

first of all i want to say that you can setup two operating system on your machine,what i mean is that you can install linux and windows-MS together in the same machine but i want to say that you don't need windows in anything coz linux comes with many programmes and features that provide you with everything you will need when i say everything i mean every single thing.any way it's your chooes to put both of them or just linux but if you planning to put both of them you must put Windows-MS (or what ever you planning to put) first and then install linux and it's improtant to make this DO NOT INSTALL LINUX FIRST.

Now let's start i will talk about installing linux Mandrake 10.

1-when you turn your computer on press on DELETE button you will enter a blue screen called 'BIOS', look for 'BIOS feature setup' then look for 'Boot sequence' and make it 'Boot from cd' by using the page up and page down button.

2-then press ESC and chooes 'save and exit' then press Y don't forget to put the first cd in the cd-room .

3-after restarting the machine a blue screen will come to you asking you to press F1 if you want help or Enter if want to install linux ... Press Enter and it will start to copying the files to your machine and it will take up to 10 min.

4-After copying files you will be asked to choose the language choose'US ENglish' and if you would like to add the arabic to your machine choose advance and select the arabic and the unicode then click ok .

5-choose that you are agree with the tearm.

6- Now you must select the installation class,and you have here to type the first one is 'Recommended' and 'Expert' select the fist one which is 'Recommended' then press install.

7-this is the most important step and it's about how to partitioning your hard disk, select from the list infront of you the option 'custom hard partitioning' then press ok.

you will find the partitions that in your hard disk and the one you prepared to the linux (your must prepare a 10 GB formated space for linux) you will find it with blue color,select it with the mouse then press on the auto alocate and it will partitioning it for you you must find two partition with red color and a small one with green color (swap).

9-after you do this press done and it will ask you if you are sure and choose yes,then you will have to select the programmes you want to install in the system then press ok.

now it will install all the programmes you want and will ask you to change the cds so stay near the computer.

10-it will ask you for a password for the root enter the password that you like and make sure not to forget it .

11-It will ask you then to create a user so create a one to use it.

12-select the way you will connect to the net if it by "Normal Modem connection" or "ADSL" or whatever you using to connect to the net.

13-create a new dial up if then click ok

14-press ok

15-press yes

16-press no

17-press ok

18-remove the cd form the cd-room and then don't do anything till you enter the linuc then chooes the desktop you want and make it KDE then Next then cancel .

now you had instaled linux and get party

Learn How to Use GNU/Linux: lesson 2

Now i'll talk about the directories of your system. when you are on the root path

and list your directories with the ls command : bin/ boot/ dev/ etc/ home/ initrd/ lib/ mnt/ opt/ proc/ root/ sbin/ sys/ tmp/ usr/ var/

as You see there are alot of directories so i'll start explaining them,Now i'll explain the /bin directory .

this directory you will find all the command line that you use and can use in the linux shell. you can get to this directory by using the following:

this will list all the command line you using in the shell and this is a very important directory.

To get to this directory you have to do the following:

1-get out of the current directory by using

2-then enter the /etc directory by using

you can use two ways to do that,the pervious way or a simple way which is

this will take you to the etc directory now i'll take about this directory what is it? this directory contain the configuration file of all the programes,contain the file which end with .conf as the lilo.conf file ,how can you find this file for example use the following

then press tab and it will list all the configuration files which start with l . i'll talk now about the /usr directory

enter this directory,you can use the same way i mentioned. this directory contain all the programes used by all users on you system. in linux operating system everything is a file the keybord mous and the monitor everything is a file. let my explain to you

enter the /dev directory and list the files in this directory as you know (use the ls command line) you will find alot of file with many color this is the hardware and the device you use and can use in your system,DON'T DELE TE ANY FILE if you aren't proffesional and you will find your hard disk with name /hda and so on....

this directory contain the Linux kernel and the adminstration only can move it to anywhere you want for his personal resones.

as i said befor you can't do anything in this directory,this is the most important area and directory in the linux system.

also like root can't do anything here you can watch but don't touch anything.

this is the temporary files directory,when you open a file or browse the net or make a text file the linux make a temporary file of it and save it in the tmp directory

this contain the lib files which make the programe run and make it know it's job.

this directory contain all the users directory,if a new user create an account on the system ,the linux will create a directory with the user name in the /home directory so it contain all the users directory.

this directory contain the partitions you have in your hard disk and the will be named as following:

Win_c for directory c:

win_d for directory d:

and so on...

BY this i finshed my lesson about the linux directory and now you know all the information you need about the linux director.

Learn How to use GNU/Linux: lesson 3

You Can get help anytime anywhere while you are using linux by using the man command.

The man command is a short word for manual pages, Linux distribution comes with manual pages for nearly each utility, command, or programming system call.

So you can get any information you need about any command in linux system even command man itself can get information about it just by typing :

Manual pages started out in UNIX as one-page descriptions,In linux manual pages are found under /usr/man or /usr/share/man/

all the manual pages are named with a single-digit extension that refers to a directory that contain man page about specific thing.

what i mean is if you look at the table below you will understand what i'm trying to say:


pages, and others


Every manual page usually has a number of sections, with the documentation for the command broken down into sections as in the next table:

The man command searches for manual pages according to instructions in the man.config file under the /etc directory. These instructions define the default directories for man command in which to look for manual pages.

for example let's say that you need help with a simple command like ls what should you do ?

just in the shell type

the output for you will be a text file of all the option and information of how to use the List command (ls) and it's as vi text editor to exit from it just click anykey then type :q then press enter

hope you all like this lesson and this command will make you understand linux and become a proffisional user of linux operating system

Learn How to use GNU/Linux: Lesson 4

In this lesson i'll talk about three important commands lines,the first one is the FIND command line..

this command line is a powerfull searching command you can use it to find files which is on your hard disk,

for example to search for spell command under the /usr directory you have to do:

let's say that you want to find a file but you can't remember the name but you remember the date you create that file and the time,for example in the last 50 days you will have to use the following:

To find any file ,either new or modified that are one or fewer days old in the /usr/bin you have to use :

and that's all you need to know about the find command line next i'll talk about the whereis command line .

This command is used to find the file's binary source and manual pages reside for example if you want to find the find command line use the following

you can also use whereis to find only the binary version of the program by:

  1. whereis -b find find: /bin/find /usr/bin/find

    let's say that you didn't find your request ,what you will get will be like this:


    and that's all you need to know about whereis also

    this command like the help command this command give you help and a summaries about any programme or command line let's say you want to know what is whereis comman line all you have to do is :

    1. whatis whereis

      but first you have to do an update for whatis database ..don't get banic all you have to do is type the following command and it will do it for you while you drinking your coffe

      so as i said to use this command after updating it's database all what you have to do is write whatis and the programme

      name or command name you want to know it and be this i finshed my lesson and see you in the next lesson

What's the funniest thing about the linux kernel?

Assalamu Alaikum,

If the post is out place than kindly suggest what's a better forum for it. Anyways I went and met some eglug members at Sakia on Saturday. I spoke with one of them for awhile. I already forgot his name because I am terrible with names. He asked me about kernel hacking I said I don't do it but I am highly amused by the kernel comments. I tried to show him this ascii diagram in the kernel source but I couldn't really remember the file it was in and I even forgot it was in the 2.4 kernel source not the 2.6 kernel source which was what that particular distro was using I was searching on. Anyways if you have the 2.4 kernel sources find the file dmi_scan.c check around line 350 or grep the file for Win98. If you want to laugh some more read all the comments in the file.

Learn How to use GNU/Linux : lesson5

Here we will continue with the shell commands lessons now i will take about some command the first one is touch:

The touch command is easy to use, and generally, there are two reasons to use it

1- create a file

2-update a file’s modification date.

The touch command has several options.

To create a file with touch, use

  1. touch newfile
  2. ls -l newfile -rw-rw-r-- 1 bball bball 0 Nov 13 08:50 newfile

    As you can see, touch created a file with size of zero. You can also use

    1. > newfile2
    2. ls -l new* -rw-rw-r-- 1 bball bball 0 Nov 13 08:50 newfile -rw-rw-r-- 1 bball bball 0 Nov 13 08:54 newfile2

      Like touch, this creates a file with size of zero.

      So why use touch Because touch will update a file’s date or time. You can use touch to change a file’s date or time to the past or the future, for example:

      1. touch newfile2
      2. ls -l newfile2 -rw-rw-r-- 1 bball bball 0 Nov 13 09:04 newfile2

        As you can see, the file newfile2 now has a timestamp 10 minutes younger.

        thes are the thing you can do by using touch command line.

        This command use to remove (rm) the files and Should be used

        cautiously. Why? Because when rm deletes a file, it is gone

        Always running Linux while logged in as the root operator and using the rm command has caused many untold tales of woe and grief.

        with this simple command you can delete out not only your Linux system, but also any mounted filesystems, including DOS partitions, flash RAM cards, or removable hard drives by using the command :

        1. rm -fr /*

          The rm command can used to remove many file one time and you can use anyone of the following:

          1. rm file
          2. rm file1 file2 file2
          3. rm file*

            the safest way to use this command is with the i option so you will be asked if you really want to remove this file or not as the next:

            1. rm -i new* rm: remove `newfile’? y rm: remove `newfile2'? y

              You can also force file deletion by using the -f option, as in

              1. rm -f new*

                If you try to use the rm command to delete a directory it will not work even if it's empty and you used the force option the file will give you an output saying he can't delete the directory as in:

                1. rm -f temp* rm: temp: is a directory rm: temp2: is a directory

                  But if you used the force and recursive option you will be able to remove directory:

                  1. rm -fr temp*

                    becaues the force and recursive options make the rm command act like rmdir command so if you want to delete a directory use this command .

                    and that's for today and see you all in next lesson

                    ready to answer any questions