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EGLUG Presentation in central EL-Fawala

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In order to collect all EGLUG document in text format to ease search on them . and this highlights the need of a place to store Eglug Documents This presentation was on Central El-Fawala.

GNU/Linux and Open Source

Egyptian GNU/Linux users' Group

Presented to Telecom Egypt

October 5 , 2004

What is free software ?

  • Free software has to do with freedom.
  • Free software has nothing to do with price.
  • Think of "free speech", not "free food".
  • word "free" has multiple, disjoint meanings in English.
  • The birth of Free Software
  • Richard M. Stallman
  • 1984 Stallman start GNU.
  • Stallman graduated from Harvard in 1974 with a BA in physics
  • Freedom to run the program ,for any purpose(0)
  • Freedom to study how the program works , and adapt it to your needs (1)
  • Freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor (2)
  • Freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements (3)

GNU - Is Not Unix

  • A complete users work space programs
  • All free software
  • Unix like
  • Use existing components
  • Free Software Foundation
  • GNU Development tools

What is Linux?

  • A UNIX-like Operating System, created from scratch.
  • Free of minix code
  • Linus Trovalds
  • released linux as an alternative to minix
  • open development process
  • anyone can contribute

What is Linux core "kernel" ?

  • By 1991 GNU was still missing the kernel .
  • perform many low level and system level functions.

communicates with hardware

  • Devloped by developers around the world.
  • Capable of running on tiny embedded systems (PDAs, robots, DSL routers) as well as the largest mainframes.

A GNU/Linux Timeline

  • 1984 Stallman starts GNU and the FSF.
  • 1990 GNU finished full user work space
  • 1991 Linus posts about a 'Linux'
  • 1991 Oct Linux Ver 0.02 Released
  • 1993 Dec 100,000 estimated users
  • 1994 Mar Linux 1.0 Released (500,000)
  • 1996 June Linux 2.0 Released (3,500,000)
  • 1998 Mar 7,500,000 estimated users
  • 2000 Jan ???? till now

What is “Open Source?”

  • “Open Source” is a kind of software license (a kind of “End User License Agreement”)

What is “Open Source?”

  • It doesn't just mean “Access to the source-code”
  • The license must not restrict anyone from selling or giving away the software
  • The program must include the source code, and allow distribution
  • The license must allow for derived works and other modifications to be released under the same license
  • The license must not discriminate against persons or groups
  • The license must not discriminate against fields of endeavor (e.g., it cannot say “For educational use only”)

Who we are ?

  • Our goals are very simple. We have discovered GNU/Linux and want to talk to others who have made the same discovery.
  • We are experts and novices, professionals and hobbyists, young and old. Whoever you are, we hope we have something for you.
  • We have many contributes in advocate ,train and support for Linux community in Egypt

Why choose Open Source?

  • Open Source is Flexible
  • The source code is available, so it can be altered to suit your needs.
  • A program can change in ways the author never intended or dreamed of!
  • Open Source is Inexpensive
  • Up front costs for the software are nil!
  • Because the source is available, anyone can learn how software works, so support can become *competitive; and therefore cheap!

Why choose Open Source?

  • Open Source developers are motivated
  • Most developers of Open Source are doing it because they have a need or a want to; they are *not simply programmer drones at a huge corporation!
  • Better Security, and fewer bugs!
  • Accidental (or malicious) bugs are found quickly, since anyone and everyone can examine the code.
  • Viruses, “spyware,” etc. are almost non-existent!
  • Actual bugs are fixed quickly, and in the open.

Why choose Open Source?

  • The code will survive!
  • While the loss of a major corporate contributor may be a deterrent, it will never mean the death of a piece of Open Source software.
  • The code will always be out there, since it can always be passed along!

You can contribute!

  • Even if you cannot help write the software, you can contribute with bug reports, feature requests, etc.

Why Switch to Linux?

  • Many are frustrated with bugs, viruses, and crashes.
  • Others are sick of spyware, pop-up ads, and having their computers hijacked to attack others or send spam.
  • Some are tired of recurring costs (both new versions of software, and new hardware just to run it!)
  • Finally, many have major concerns with new licensing that takes away their rights and invades their privacy!

Other Reasons to Use Linux

  • Linux is a powerful multitasking, multi-user operating system
  • The underlying OS and tools are separate from the graphical environment (GUI), so it is more well suited as a server. (It can run powerful servers on less powerful hardware.)
  • It runs web servers, databases, email, print servers, file shares...
  • Where does Linux run?
  • Embedded systems
  • TiVo & entertainment systems
  • Robots
  • PDAs / hand held computers
  • Cellphones
  • Gateways, server appliances, wireless access points
  • Point-of-sale systems (cash registers)
  • Licensing cost for the Linux OS itself is $0.
  • Compared that to commercial embedded OSes!

Where does Linux run?

  • Variety of CPU architectures
  • “IBM Compatible” PCs
  • 386, 486, 586, Pentium
  • Next generation PCs
  • Itanium, AMD64/Opteron
  • Motorola 68000 / PowerPC
  • Apple Macintosh, Atari ST, Amiga, etc.
  • Alpha
  • ARM
  • IBM S/390
  • MIPS
  • Sparc

Where does Linux run?

  • Giant Mainframes & Clusters
  • IBM, HP and others sell Linux-based systems
  • Some make their own large systems out of hundreds, or thousands of commodity systems (clusters)

Users include:

  • Google (search engine)
  • Amazon (e-commerce site)
  • Dreamworks (animated motion pictures)
  • NASA
  • US National weather service
  • Other government & military

Where does Linux run?

  • Thin Clients (and servers)
  • Linux servers store and run applications, and store all user data.
  • Extremely low-end Linux clients display the applications.
  • Used in schools and colleges, and some small businesses.

Why Linux is secure?

  • Linux is one of the most secure operating systems. “Walls” and flexible file access permission
  • systems prevent access by unwanted visitors or viruses.
  • Linux is process centric.
  • No one can change the settings of the system except one user account (root).
  • Remote administration made easy through command line tools.

Governments Switching to Linux and Open Source!

  • Britain's National Health Service considering (December 2003)
  • Brazil leaning away from Microsoft (November 2003)
  • “Vietnam embracing open-source products” (October 2003)
  • Massachusetts mandates open source; locks horns with Microsoft(October 2003;)
  • “Israel slams the door on Microsoft” (October 2003)
  • UK Office of Government Commerce (October 2003)
  • “Japan, China, Korea may develop Windows replacement”(August 2003)

</p> >

  • Linux reaches Afghanistan (July 2003)

    Not ready for Linux?

    • Use Open Source anyway!
    • Countless applications have been released as Open Source
    • Much is developed specifically for Linux
    • However, much is either designed with other platforms in mind, or gets 'ported' later!
    • Some major commercial applications were later released as Open Source software!
    • Some Open Source software you can use M$
    • Mozilla – Web Browser
    • Netscape code base was released “into the wild”
    • It is now one of the most standards-compliant browsers
    • Developers design it to be user-oriented, rather than creating yet another means to serve advertising
    • AOL now uses Open Source Mozilla project as a basis for commercial Netscape releases!!!

    Mozilla Browser

    • Screenshoot of Mozilla browser

    Mozilla Mail

    • and Usenet News reader
    • Screenshoot of Mozilla Mail

    Examples of Open Source software you can use on M$ – Office productivity suite

    • German “StarOffice” suite was purchased by
    • Sun Microsystems and released as Open Source
    • Has a high degree of Microsoft Office compatibility
    • Can export directly to PDF
    • Includes integrated Word Processor, Spreadsheet, Presentation, and Drawing apps
    • Screenshoot of Mozilla browserLike AOL/Netscape does with “Mozilla,” Sun now uses as a basis for their commercial “StarOffice” product Writer

    • Screenshoot of oowriter Calc

    • sceenshoot of oocalc

    Examples of Open Source software you can use M$

    The Gimp – Graphics manipulation software.

    • Originally developed for Linux and Unix by students at UC Berkeley
    • Handles photo retouching, image composition, image authoring, and file format conversion
    • Includes layers, filters, full script-ability, batch processing capabilities, and much


    • Often dubbed “a free replacement for PhotoShop”

    The Gimp

    • screenshoot of the GIMP

    Examples of Open Source software you can use M$

    Flight Gear – Flight simulator

    • Goals include:
    • Creating a sophisticated simulation framework for research and academic environments
    • For development and pursuit of other simulation ideas
    • And, of course, as an end-user application

    Examples of Open Source software you can use on M$

    GCC – The GNU C Compiler

    • Famous Open Source compilers for C, C++, Java and Fortran
    • Ported to countless CPU architectures
    • Capable of cross-compiling between architectures

    Examples of Open Source software you can use on M$

    Audacity – Audio editor

    • Sound record and playback
    • Import and export, WAV, MP3, AIFF and more
    • Edit, mix and apply effects to sounds
    • Additional effects can be added via plug-ins

    Examples of Open Source software you can use on M$

    • Celestia – Real-time space simulation
    • Full 3D graphics
    • Visit the Solar System
    • Visit hundreds of thousands of stars

    Examples of Open Source software you can use TODAY

    Tux Paint – Drawing for young children

    • Easy enough for 3-year-olds
    • Can be 'locked down' (full-screen display, disable “Quit” and “Print” buttons, etc.)
    • Translated into over 30 languages

    Get Open Source Software!

    GNU Win II

    • A free software compliation for Windows.
    • Download any/all programs from the website.
    • Purchase a CDROM with select titles

    Get Open Source Software!

    Open Source Software CD

    • Another free software compliation for Windows.
    • Includes only software for a broad audience, which has been thoroughly tested.

    Get Linux

    • (No-commitment!)

    Knoppix - “Live CD” of Linux

    • NOT an install disc.
    • Doesn't place Linux on your hard disk...
    • Runs completely from CDROM!
    • When you're done, shut down and remove the disc; reboot and you're back in Windows!
    • Known for it's ability to detect
    • most hardware peripherals
    • without any configuration!
    • Sometimes used as an “emergency”
    • boot disc to recover a dead Windows system!

    Get Linux

    • (No-commitment!)

    Phaeronix - “Live CD” of Linux

    • an install disc.
    • Doesn't place Linux on your hard disk...
    • Runs completely from CDROM!
    • When you're done, shut down and remove the disc; reboot and you're back in Windows!

    Known for it's ability to detect

    • most hardware peripherals
    • without any configuration!
    • made by Egyptian volunteer
    • He is member of EGLUG.

    Linux Users Desktop

    • screen shoot of latest KDE

    Linux Users Desktop

    • screen shoot of latest KDE,showing the transparency.

    Linux Users Desktop

    • GNOME User desktop

    Linux Users Desktop

    • Other Window manger

    Linux Users Desktop

    • Window manger looks like XP


    *We would like to express about our grateful thanks to whom stand for finishing this seminar.


    • Eng.Mohamed Abou-Quresh.

  • Dr. Radut | book